By D. Surus. State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology, Morrisville. 2018.

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Language user refers to the aspects related to the user that participates in a language event such as geographical, temporal, idiolectal, social aspects, etc. Our starting point is the general agreement on the part of several linguists (Firth 1935: 67; Gregory/Caroll 1978: 64; Halliday 1978:77; Biber/Finegan 1994: 33) regarding the importance of the co- relational nature of the situational characteristics (field, tenor and mode) and the linguistic expressions, so that recurrent situational characteristics may determine the selection of linguistic expressions and the latter may correspondingly shape the situation. This use- related framework for the description of language variation aims to uncover the general principles that lead to variation in situation types, so that it is possible to identify “what situational factors determine what linguistic features” (Halliday 1978: 32). In the 1980’s and, above all, in the 1990’s, many scholars supporting descriptive theories of terminology adapted these ideas to specialized languages as opposed to the ideas of the 70 Paula De Santiago González prescriptive school of terminology, which were based on a fixed concept-designation relation: The recognition that terms occur in various linguistic contexts and that they have variants which are frequently context-conditioned shatters the idealized view that there can or should be only one designation for a concept and vice versa […] one concept can have as many linguistic representations as there are distinct communicative situations which require different forms. Popularization has been defined in detail later on by Calsa- miglia and Van Dijk (2004: 370) as “a vast class of various types of communicative events or genres that involve the transformation of specialized knowledge into ‘everyday’ or ‘lay’ knowledge […]”. According to these authors, the lay versions of specialized knowledge can be achieved through different strategies, such as explanations, de- finitions or denominative variants. The present work is based on the study of denominative va- riants (Faulstich 1998/1999, 2002; Freixa 2003; Suárez 2004; Daille 2005; Bowker/Hawkins 2006) in the biomedical field in two different communicative settings: expert to expert, and expert/semi-expert to non-expert. The first aim, then, is to identify denominative variants in each register, the former representing scientific communication bet- ween experts in the field and the latter representing popular science communication written by experts or scientific journalists and ad- dressed to educated people or patients. According to Sager (1997: 25), the formation and selection of alternative denominations for each concept is a conscious activity because the main purpose of terms is to facilitate specialized communication and knowledge transfer; there- Formation Patterns of Denominative Variants in Biomedicine 71 fore we expect different denominations in each register as their use should depend on the degree of knowledge of the users in the com- municative setting. The second aim of this study is to identify semantico-syntactic patterns for each register in order to help experts and semi-experts of a specialized field decide what term is more appropriate in each situation. Bowker (2010: 157) supports this idea by emphasizing that terms can only be employed within the specialized discourse they are embedded in and, thus, cannot be examined out of it. Methodology For the detection and the analysis of variants, we will count on a 1,010,999 tokens English monolingual corpus made up of two sub- 72 Paula De Santiago González corpora of similar size. Different genres have been used to represent different registers in each subcorpus: subcorpus 1 (S1) is made up of research articles whose writers and recipients have the greatest level of knowledge of the field; subcorpus 2 (S2) is composed of popular science articles, whose recipients’ level of knowledge is usually low (e. English monolingual corpus Subcorpora Subcorpus 1 Subcorpus 2 Communicative Expert to expert Expert/semi-expert to non-expert situation types communication communication Genres 100 Research articles 481 popular science articles Sources Journals: Popular science magazines: New Nature, Cell, Cancer Scientist, Scientific American, Cell, Developmental Popular Science, Discover, Cell, The New England American Scientist, Science News, Journal of Medicine, The Scientist, Science Now, International Journal of Nature News, Science Daily, Cardiology, Circulation, Access Science, Neurology Now, Circulation Research, Learn genetics. Candidate terms have been selected according Formation Patterns of Denominative Variants in Biomedicine 73 to nominal category, frequency (20 occurrences), distribution (5 texts) and topic relevance (stem cell types) in subcorpus 1, where expert to expert communication takes place. We have focused on nouns because it is the most frequent grammatical category in specialized languages: Nominal groups are the most appropriate vehicles of condensed linguistic ex- pression for scientists and technologists who are trained to perceive and con- sequently to speak about the physical world in terms of concepts, processes and quantifiable units. We noticed that 15% of the words in the corpus exceeded the frequency limit and that, below it, other non- relevant words started to appear more and more frequently. The reason for focusing on the semantic set of stem cell types is due to the advances in the field and the need for disseminating new discoveries to all type of recipients. We have noticed that many classi- ficatory denominations in the field are reduced, extended or sub- stituted for meeting the different writers’ intentions, which are linked to the recipient’s degree of knowledge. Concordance lines using hematopoietic stem cell* as the key word in context has provided interesting results: (1) Blood stem cells, known as hematopoietic stem cells, reside primarily in mar- row, spongy interior of bones. This final aim is probably the most important in terms of application; however, from our point of view, this cannot be achieved without the previously cited steps. According to Bowker and Hawkins (2006: 87) many avail- able resources on medical terminology do include variants; although relevant, this information can sometimes be misleading for users because they should be provided with the different circumstances in which those variants should or could be used and why. The selection of the appropriate lexis in each context is essential as it is one of the conventions that facilitate the construction of textual models: textual genres. Formation Patterns of Denominative Variants in Biomedicine 77 With the help of different subcorpora, it has been possible to find variants for terms in different registers. Each context provided by concordance lines has been the source for identifying explicit variants, that is variants linked to terms by means of reformulative discourse markers (cf. As opposed to Daille (2005: 183) who considers that term variants are noun phrases composed of a head noun and a nominal or adjectival modifier, in this study all nominal syntagmatic units, including acro- nyms, have been taken into account. Furthermore, as can be observed in Table 5, each term has a different number of variants: terms in S1 have from 1 to 5 variants while terms in S2 have from 1 to 8 variants. Syntactically, the majority of Formation Patterns of Denominative Variants in Biomedicine 79 variants in S2 have been formed by composition (90%) and only a few 1 by truncation (10%). It should be highlighted that all the compound variants – bone-marrow stromal stem cell, bone marrow stromal cell, skeletal stem cell, bone marrow-derived stromal cell – in S1 are assigned to the same term mesenchymal stem cell. The main dif- ference between the truncated forms in S1 and in S2 is that most trun- cated forms in S2 belong to most known types of cells as they are hy- peronyms of many other specific types (e. All the compounds from the resulting data have been further subclassified according to the process terms have gone through to result in alternative denominations. The greatest number of compounds has been found in S2 (47), and there- fore they have been described in the first place: ● 18 variants out of 52 (34%) reproduce compounds built from Greek or Latin roots in the English language (e. Different words are 1 In this study, truncation is understood as a formal means by which a lexematic unit is reduced to an acronym or an abbreviated form.

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Setting up a consumer organisation which does not immediately receive money from vested interests kamagra 50mg with amex, with the long-term strategy of bringing in such money at a later date kamagra 100 mg, is good thinking. The organisation was pump-primed by the Sarah Scaife Foundation with a grant of $125,000. This grant came at a time when the New Right was in the ascendancy and conservative industrial causes were looking round for organisations and people to champion their cause. The Sarah Scaife Foundation money was heavily 8 based upon Gulf Stock, which had funded a large number of campaigning right-wing groups in the second half of the seventies. The Scaife Foundation is as clean as I could ever possibly imagine, people keep telling me about how they own Gulf Oil stock... Of 10 these, 27 had a potential interest in food, drugs, air pollution regulation, or chemicals. The organisation receives money from all the industrial sectors which contribute to the production of chemically-treated foodstuffs. It receives money from most of the largest companies involved in chemical production from the raw materials to the production and distribution of refined chemicals. Elizabth Whelan is a combative career woman in her late forties who bears comparison with the most dedicated anti-health fraud activists. She has a doctorate in Public Health from 12 Harvard, where she studied under Professor Frederick Stare. The chemical and pharmaceutical companies often make public the view that the press is responsible for false perceptions about toxins and risk. The gorgeous cheeseburger contains ingredients from all of the Basic Four Food Groups, but if you eat it in a fast food restaurant, some people 13 will regard it as junk. From the start she and her backers have understood the need for a dynamic new language which sells chemical products while criminalising those who speak out against them. Former head of the Nutrition Department at the Harvard School of Public Health, Stare has associated himself with many campaigns against vitamins and food supplements. Both Whelan and another Board member, Dr Robert Olson, were pupils of Dr Stare at Harvard. Stare created the Harvard Nutrition Department himself in 1942 and built it up largely by attracting huge grants and gifts from food companies like General Foods, Borden and Kellogg. He is a board member of one large can company and has received extensive grants for his work from food processing companies. In 1960 the nutritional laboratories at Harvard received 19 over a million dollars from the General Foods Corporation. Between 1971 and 1974, the food industry provided about $2 million dollars to Harvard for nutritional research; the money came 20 from the Sugar Association, Coca-Cola and Kellogg amongst others. In 1969, when General Foods was Fortune 21 ranked 46th, six out of fifteen of its directors were Rockefeller Group directors. Another way of having a controlling interest is to have a predominance of Rockefeller-influenced directors. This suggestion throws into question the whole of accepted scientific method, for it is said that the only value of testing substances on animals is to gauge the risk to humans. For a week she campaigned on behalf of sugar and did a series of interviews with the gullible British media. At first sight it is hard to see how an American socialist organisation, which in the 1930s set out to attack religion and promote humanism, could by the 1980s be involved in a series of attacks upon alternative medical practitioners, in Europe. Paul Kurtz, the founder of the Committee for Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, is a philosophy lecturer and writer at New York University. A prominent humanist, Kurtz was originally a member of the American Humanist Association and is now the leading member in a group of breakaway humanist organisations. Pragmatism became the final retreat for those Americans who had flirted with communism in the thirties and forties, ditching it as the Cold War set in. It is a philosophy which encompasses the most humanistic elements of social organisation and civil rights without actually challenging the industrial and productive power of capitalism which creates inequality and infringes those rights. Kurtz was 3 influenced by Sidney Hook, a leading American Liberal and free-thinker. After its first Congress in West Berlin, it organised conferences all over the world. Many of its prominent members were secular freethinkers and humanists who were philosophically left of centre. A materialist organisation, it was broadly based on beliefs in atheism, socialism, free thinking and individualism. It was particularly influential amongst intellectuals in east coast cities like New York.

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Confident of the scientific accuracy of hair samples analysed at Biolab kamagra 100 mg amex, Stephen Davies offered the journalists 10 free sample analyses from the same head and said that they could compare any two of those samples kamagra 100 mg lowest price, and then write their story. When they refused the offer, Stephen Davies sought an injunction in the High Court, to postpone the publication of the article for a week. He also made the point that Stephen Davies would later have recourse to libel law. When I realised that we were being attacked I felt very protective of Biolab, its staff and all the patients who were benefiting from the kind of care that we are able to give. I felt how dare they distort the truth in an attack upon a form of medicine that can be so effective, and which attempts to help patients at the same time as reducing the risk of the patients falling foul of the side effects of potent and potentially toxic pharmaceutical drugs. The half of the article which did not deal with hair analysis argued against there being any conceivable value in taking vitamins and mineral supplements. There are extensive quotes taken from Professor John Garrow and Isobel Cole-Hamilton, both of whom are old school nutritionists, antagonistic to the use of vitamins and mineral supplements. Lurking behind this apparently investigative report on hair-mineral analysis is the much more serious covert content of the article, which attempts to expose nutritional medicine as quackery. John Garrow says: So far as minerals are concerned, I do not know of any evidence that there is any benefit to the 6 population of taking supplements. Isobel Cole-Hamilton, who is not even a doctor, is quoted as saying: If people were eating a healthy diet with plenty of fruit, vegetables, lean meat, potatoes and bread, particularly wholemeal bread, they would be getting all the zinc, iron, vitamins and other minerals they need. The article ends with a quote from the Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin: Books distributed by health food stores suggest that many people lack zinc and that this may explain problems ranging from brittle nails, acne, and premenstrual tension to alopecia and impotence. It is hardly surprising that it takes the side of pharmaceutical companies and orthodox practitioners on the use of supplements. The anti-vitamin lobby in America has a tired joke about Americans having the most expensive urine in the world, because of the vitamins they consume but do not metabolise. Like all bad jokes about national identity, it can be quickly turned round to reflect on people of other nations. Since many of the minerals and vitamins that we consume but cannot use are excreted in our 9 urine, doctors believe that Britain could soon have the most expensive urine in the world. Someone should have told Annabel Ferriman one of the first principles of economics: that for something to be expensive, it must have an exchange value. Perhaps Annabel Ferriman knew someone in the market for used urine, or had the Observer taken it all? From the point of view of Stephen Davies, a hard working doctor seeing many patients with a variety of illnesses, the article was damaging to his practice because it upset patients and impugned the integrity of the scientists working at Biolab. It also caused Davies himself considerable upset because it questioned his professionalism. No one was to know at the time that the article was only a first shot fired by powerful covert vested interest. I was interviewed by a senior member of staff, I told him about the work of Dr Carl Pfeiffer and Dr Linus Pauling. He has been particularly influenced by the attitudes of Eastern religion to food and the body. He runs one of the only institutes in the private sector which give an education and training in nutrition. From about the age of 14, I got involved in different consciousness-raising groups. At the age of fifteen, my two heroes were Jung and Hesse and I read whatever I could. I finally decided to study psychology at York University, which turned out to be science-based experimental psychology, psychopharmacology and brain biochemistry! I had always been a member of the consciousness 2 movement, an extremely vocal one. It talked about the mind, body and spirit; it sold 10,000 copies in the first year. Within three years, the organisation was in deep financial trouble and went into liquidation. As well as carrying out research, it holds courses and meetings for the general public. It has been a difficult organisation to run, dependent on a continuous flow of students for its courses. Since 1984, the Institute has had around 80 students go through the process of training. We want to create a shift in the public consciousness away from the idea that as long as you eat a well-balanced diet, you get all the vitamins you need, and towards the idea that optimum nutrition is a dynamic process and many illnesses are the result of faulty nutrition. They said that if you change your diet and take vitamin and mineral supplements, it makes a lot of difference to your health and well-being. I lost a stone in weight very rapidly and never put it on again, my energy shot up, my number of hours sleeping went down, my skin cleared up and my headaches went. I was eating no wheat and virtually no meat, lots of fruit and vegetables, mainly raw, and a few vitamins and mineral supplements. Like many others in the field of nutrition, Holford was influenced by work on nutrition in America.

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It is also less expensive and does electromagnetic field and rely on high-definition not require transport of a critically ill patient to virtual bronchoscopic road maps with ultrathin the operating room generic kamagra 50mg overnight delivery. Major adverse events of a semirigid or rigid thoracoscope with the intent including hypoxemia generic 100 mg kamagra overnight delivery, pneumothorax, bleeding, of draining pleural fluid, obtaining biopsies of and death may also occur, and both patient and the parietal pleura, and/or instilling an agent to procedure-related factors are important determi- achieve pleurodesis. The British Thoracic Society has published thoracic surgery is typically performed in the oper- their recommendations concerning the perfor- ating room with general anesthesia and lung isola- mance of diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. These tion with two or three ports, medical thoracoscopy recommendations include steps that should be is commonly performed in an endoscopy suite with taken to minimize complications. Common indications more advanced procedures including rigid bron- for medical thoracoscopy include a recurrent exu- choscopy, pleuroscopy/thoracoscopy, indwelling dative effusion with no clear diagnosis or a known pleural catheters, and percutaneous tracheostomy malignant effusion requiring pleurodesis. Pleural palliation Flexible bronchoscopy is one of the most com- can be achieved in close to 90% of patients, and monly performed procedures by the pulmonolo- side effects are relatively few. Invasive and airway or pleural disease, it is best to obtain for- noninvasive strategies for management of sus- mal training in the subspecialty of interventional pected ventilator-associated pneumonia: a ran- pulmonology. Ultrasound-guided Inflammatory and immune processes in the human transbronchial needle aspiration: an experience in lung in health and disease: evaluation by bron- 242 patients. Bronchoal- alone for the detection of precancerous lesions: a veolar lavage in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmo- European randomised controlled multicentre trial. Hemopty- acquired pneumonia in a routine setting: a study sis: etiology, evaluation, and outcome in a tertiary on patients treated in a Finnish university hospital. Massive rate endobronchial brachytherapy effectively hemoptysis: what place for medical and surgical palliates symptoms due to airway tumors: the 10- treatment. Diagnosis domized trial comparing lung-volume-reduction of peripheral pulmonary lesions using a broncho- surgery with medical therapy for severe emphy- scope insertion guidance system combined with sema. Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma, a parasite, genomic analysis revealed that P jiroveci Legionella, and Chlamydia is described but seems is in fact a fungus that infects only humans, to be relatively uncommon, especially in patients whereas P carinii is pathogenic only in immunode- with severe immunosuppression. The organism cannot be cultured reli- an aerobic Gram-positive acid-fast bacillus, may ably outside the lung, and its source is still not cause focal consolidation, endobronchial disease, identified; therefore, the precise route of transmis- and cavitation, usually in patients with advanced sion is elusive. Patients usually present with fever, but are still so profoundly immunocompromised chills, productive cough, and localized areas of that it is ineffective. Other nontuberculous mycobacteria rence of opportunistic infections, probably because also cause pulmonary infections in patients with M tuberculosis is more virulent. Unilobar radiographic involvement, tion who come from endemic areas when immu- cavitation, nodules, and pleural effusions also nodeficiency permits the reactivation of latent have been described. The diagnosis is established by demonstrating the pres- Life-threatening pulmonary aspergillosis may ence of the organism by microscopy or culture in develop in patients with advanced immunosup- respiratory specimens. The following two common patterns of disease have been identified: an invasive paren- Neoplastic Diseases of the Lungs chymal infection, which is usually fatal, and a predominantly bronchial disease presenting with Kaposi Sarcoma dyspnea and airway obstruction. This diagnosis has patients with advanced disease and may involve traditionally required histologic proof, because the airways, lungs tissue, mediastinal lymph Aspergillus is ubiquitous, and its presence in naso- nodes, and pleura. Therapy with standard antimicrobial the pulmonary endothelium may stimulate apop- agents is usually effective, but symptoms are likely tosis, growth, and proliferation. It documents the decreasing rates of the agent that causes progressive multifocal opportunistic infections and death in addition to the trends leukoencephalopathy. Accessed April 5, illness and in the proper clinical setting, invasive 2009 procedures can usually be avoided and the Latest version of comprehensive guidelines for the preven- patient observed. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bron- aspergillosis in patients with acquired immunodefi- cho-pulmonary infection in late human immuno- ciency syndrome: report of 33 cases. Mortality during the follow-up period was with certainty because it is commonly found in association almost fourfold greater in subjects who had an episode of with other pathogens and may be isolated from lung-derived bacterial pneumonia than in others. Curr Opin Review of the biology, host defense mechanisms, epide- Pulm Med 2002; 8:317−322 miology and clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment Reviews the pathogenesis and clinical features of primary of Pneumocystis, recommending directions for future effusional lymphoma. A large number of thoracic surgery lowing cardiac surgery and chest trauma patients have underlying lung diseases that are • Describe the initial assessment of the patient who has suf- fered blunt chest trauma associated with an increase in the morbidity and • Recognize and treat the most common causes of postcardiac mortality from surgery, especially in the elderly. Thoracic Surgical Procedures Indication Approach Procedures Many recently trained chest surgeons have more Resectional Thoracotomy Pneumonectomy, experience in cardiac surgery than in thoracic lobectomy, segmentectomy, surgery. For the pulmonologist, a surgeon with wedge resection, rib expertise in thoracic surgery is essential for patients and chest wall undergoing complicated pulmonary procedures. This article will Diagnostic Thoracotomy Biopsy of lung, pleura, pericardium, concentrate on those problems most frequently mediastinal structures, encountered by a practicing pulmonologist, includ- adenopathy ing preoperative evaluation prior to lung resection Thoracoscopy Biopsy of lung, pleura, surgery, pulmonary complications following tho- pericardium, mediastinal structures, racic and cardiac surgery, diagnostic thoracoscopy, nodes; diagnose and pulmocardiac complications following chest diaphragmatic injury trauma. There are similar predictable decreases in lung techniques for predicting postoperative pulmonary function following cardiac surgery, as described function, the temporary unilateral pulmonary artery later in this article. In the 1980s, Sixty years ago, thoracic surgery was most com- diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide monly performed to control tuberculosis. However, most of these parameters double-lumen endotracheal tube (under conscious were derived from studies that included mainly sedation) that essentially isolates the right from the men in their sixth to eighth decades. In addition, these parameters lacked sufficient operative pulmonary function by the percentage of specificity for the individual patient, and therefore lung that will remain postoperatively.

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